The viral nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) is the only membrane-associated protein that anchors the replication complex to the cellular membranes. NSP1 inhibits host translation by interacting with the 40S ribosomal subunit. The nsp1-40S ribosome complex further induces an endonucleolytic cleavage near the 5'UTR of host mRNAs, targeting them for degradation. Viral mRNAs are not susceptible to nsp1-mediated endonucleolytic RNA cleavage thanks to the presence of a 5'-end leader sequence and are therefore protected from degradation. By suppressing host gene expression, nsp1 facilitates efficient viral gene expression in infected cells and evasion from host immune response.