This protein carries a polyhistidine tag at the C-terminus, and has a calculated MW of 16.8 kDa. The N-terminus Sequence Analysis is Leu 25. The reducing (R) protein migrates as 31-44 kDa in SDS-PAGE due to glycosylation.
Less than 0.01 EU per μg by the LAL method.
>95% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
>90% as determined by SEC-HPLC.
Lyophilized from 0.22 μm filtered solution in PBS, pH7.4. Normally trehalose is added as protectant before lyophilization.
Contact us for customized product form or formulation.
Please see Certificate of Analysis for specific instructions.
For best performance, we strongly recommend you to follow the reconstitution protocol provided in the CoA.
For long term storage, the product should be stored at lyophilized state at -20°C or lower.
Please avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
No activity loss is observed after storage at:
4-8°C for 12 months in lyophilized state;
-70°C for 3 months under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Human PD-1, His Tag, low endotoxin on SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) condition. The gel was stained overnight with Coomassie Blue. The purity of the protein is greater than 95%.
The purity of Human PD-1, His Tag, low endotoxin (HPLC-verified) (Cat. No. PD1-H522a) was greater than 90% as determined by SEC-HPLC.
Immobilized Human PD-1, His Tag, low endotoxin (Cat. No. PD1-H522a) at 0.2μg/mL (100 μL/well) can bind Human PD-L1, Fc Tag (Cat. No. PD1-H5258) with a linear range of 0.31-1.25 μg/mL (QC tested).
Immobilized Human PD-1, His Tag, low endotoxin (Cat. No. PD1-H522a) at 2 μg/mL (100 μL/well) can bind Human PD-L2, Mouse IgG1 Fc Tag (Cat. No. PD2-H52A5) with a linear range of 10-156 ng/mL (Routinely tested).
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is also known as CD279 and PDCD1, is a type I membrane protein and is a member of the extended CD28/CTLA-4 family of T cell regulators. PDCD1 is expressed on the surface of activated T cells, B cells, macrophages, myeloid cells and a subset of thymocytes. PD-1 has two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, which are members of the B7 family. PD-L1 is expressed on almost all murine tumor cell lines, including PA1 myeloma, P815 mastocytoma, and B16 melanoma upon treatment with IFN-γ. PD-L2 expression is more restricted and is expressed mainly by DCs and a few tumor lines. PD1 inhibits the T-cell proliferation and production of related cytokines including IL-1, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ by suppressing the activation and transduction of PI3K/AKT pathway. In addition, coligation of PD1 inhibits BCR-mediating signal by dephosphorylating key signal transducer. In vitro, treatment of anti-CD3 stimulated T cells with PD-L1-Ig results in reduced T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion. Monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1 that boost the immune system are being developed for the treatment of cancer.