Human Latent Activin A, His Tag (ACA-H424x) is expressed from human 293 cells (HEK293). It contains AA Ser 21 - Ser 426 (Accession # AAH07858.1).
Predicted N-terminus: His (pro) & Gly311 (mature)
This protein carries a polyhistidine tag at the N-terminus.
The protein has a calculated MW of 13 kDa (mature) & 32 kDa (pro). As a result of glycosylation and Interchain disulfide bond, the protein migrates as 15 kDa (mature) and 43-48 kDa (pro) under reducing (R) condition, and 27 kDa (mature), 43-48 kDa (pro) and 60 kDa (pro & mature) under non-reducing (NR) condition (SDS-PAGE).
Less than 1.0 EU per μg by the LAL method.
>90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Lyophilized from 0.22 μm filtered solution in PBS, pH7.4. Normally trehalose is added as protectant before lyophilization.
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Please see Certificate of Analysis for specific instructions.
For best performance, we strongly recommend you to follow the reconstitution protocol provided in the CoA.
For long term storage, the product should be stored at lyophilized state at -20°C or lower.
Please avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
No activity loss is observed after storage at:
- 4-8°C for 12 months in lyophilized state;
- -70°C for 3 months under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Human Latent Activin A, His Tag on SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and no-reducing (NR) conditions. The gel was stained overnight with Coomassie Blue. The purity of the protein is greater than 90%.
Immobilized Human Activin A, His Tag (Catalog # ACA-H424x) at 10 μg/mL (100 μL/well) can bind Human ACVR2A, Fc Tag (Catalog # ACA-H5253) with a linear range of 0.625-20 μg/mL (QC tested).
The bio-activity of latent Activin A（Cat# ACA-H424x）was determined by dose-dependent inhibition of the proliferation of MPC-11 cells. The EC50 for this effect is typically 47-66ng/ml (routinely tested).
Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects. Activin enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Many other functions have been found to be exerted by activin, including roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, homeostasis, immune response, wound repair, and endocrine function. Conversely inhibin down regulates FSH synthesis and inhibits FSH secretion. Activins are nonglycosylated homodimers or heterodimers of various β subunits (βA, βB, βC, and βE in mammals), while Inhibins are heterodimers of a unique α subunit and one of the β subunits. Activin A is a widely expressed homodimer of two βA chains. The βA subunit can also heterodimerize with a βB or βC subunit to form Activin AB and Activin AC, respectively. The 14 kDa mature human βA chain shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with bovine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat βA. Activin is produced in the gonads, pituitary gland, placenta, and other organs. The bioactivity of Activin A is regulated by a variety of mechanisms. In the ovarian follicle, activin increases FSH binding and FSH-induced aromatization; Activin is strongly expressed in wounded skin, and overexpression of activin in epidermis of transgenic mice improves wound healing and enhances scar formation; Activin also regulates the morphogenesis of branching organs such as the prostate, lung, and especially kidney. Activin A increased the expression level of type-I collagen suggesting that activin A acts as a potent activator of fibroblasts; Lack of activin during development results in neural developmental defects.
- (1) Chen YG., et al., 2006, Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) 231 (5): 534–44.
- (2) Sulyok S, et al., 2004, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 225 (1–2): 127–32.
- (3) van Zonneveld P, et al., 2003, Hum Reprod 18 (3): 495–501.
- (4) Harrison, C.A. et al., 2005, Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 16:73.
- (5) Thompson, T.B. et al., 2004, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 225:9.
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