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Brief Information

Name:Macrophage colony stimulating factor 2
Target Synonym:Molgramostim,Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor,Colony-Stimulating Factor,Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor,GM-CSF,Molgramostin,CSF2,Colony Stimulating Factor 2,Sargramostim,GMCSF,CSF,Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating
Number of Launched Drugs:0
Number of Drugs in Clinical Trials:7
Lastest Research Phase:Phase 3 Clinical

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Part of Bioactivity data

GMF-H4214-Cell-based assay
Human FcRn Heterodimer Protein Cell_Base

The bio-activity was determined by dose-dependent stimulation of the proliferation of TF-1 cells. The ED50 < 0.1 ng/mL, corresponding to a specific activity of > 1x107 Unit/mg.


Loaded Biotinylated Human GM-CSF, epitope tag free, primary amine labeling (Cat. No. GMF-H8214) on SA Biosensor, can bind Human GM-CSF R alpha, His Tag (SPR verified) (Cat. No. GRA-H52H7) with an affinity constant of 23.1 nM as determined in BLI assay (ForteBio Octet Red96e) (Routinely tested).


Loaded Human GM-CSF R alpha, Fc Tag (Cat. No. GRA-H5255) on Protein A Biosensor, can bind ActiveMax® Human GM-CSF, Tag Free (Cat. No. GMF-H4214) with an affinity constant of 9.21 nM as determined in BLI assay (ForteBio Octet Red96e) (Routinely tested).

Synonym Name



Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is also known as Colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage), is a cytokine initially characterized by its ability to induce colonies of granulocytes and macrophages from myeloid progenitor cells, and is secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. GM-CSF is a cytokine that functions as a white blood cell growth factor. GM-CSF stimulates stem cells to produce granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and monocytes. Monocytes exitthe circulation and migrate into tissue, whereupon they mature into macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, it is part of the immune/inflammatory cascade, by which activation of a small number of macrophages can rapidly lead to an increase in their numbers, a process crucial for fighting infection. The active form of the protein is found extracellularly as a homodimer. Human GM-CSF glycosylated in its mature form. As a part of the immune/inflammatory cascade, GM-CSF promotes Th1 biased immune response, angiogenesis, allergic inflammation, and the development of autoimmunity, and thus worthy of consideration for therapeutic target. GM-CSF has also recently been evaluated in clinical trials for its potential as a vaccine adjuvant in HIV-infected patients. The preliminary results have been promising. GM-CSF is also used as a medication to stimulate the production of white blood cells following chemotherapy.

Clinical and Translational Updates

Clinical Drug Information

Name Research Code Research Phase Company Indications Clinical Trials
Namilumab MT-203; AMG-203; IZN-101 Phase 2 Clinical Takeda Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, Amgen Inc Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Spondylitis, Ankylosing; Psoriasis Details
PBI-1402 PBI-1402 Phase 2 Clinical Prometic Life Sciences Anemia Details
Lenzilumab KB-003 Phase 3 Clinical Kalobios Lymphoma, B-Cell; Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19); Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic; Arthritis, Rheumatoid Details
TJ-003234 TJM-2; TJ-003234; TJ-003234RAR101 Phase 3 Clinical I-Mab Biopharma Co Ltd Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19); Arthritis, Rheumatoid Details
PD-360324 PD-360324; PD-0360324 Phase 2 Clinical Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Ltd (China) Neoplasms; Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous; Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary Details
Gimsilumab MORAb-022; KIN-1901 Phase 2 Clinical Morphotek Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19); Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms; Rheumatic Diseases; Inflammation Details
Otilimab MOR-103; MOR-04357; GSK-3196165; GSK-165 Phase 3 Clinical University Of Melbourne Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Multiple Sclerosis; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome; Osteoarthritis Details

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