GDF-15 Molecule Synonym Name
GDF-15 Molecule Background
Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), also called Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 (MIC-1). Expression of MIC-1 mRNA in monocytoid cells is up-regulated by a variety of stimuli associated with activation, including interleukin 1?, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 2, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor but not interferon ?, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes, adipocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in normal and pathological condition. GDF-15 increases during tissue injury and inflammatory states and is associated with cardiometabolic risk. Increased GDF-15 levels are associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertrophy, heart failure, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and chronic kidney diseases in diabetes. Increased GDF-15 level is linked with the progression and prognosis of the disease condition.